The findings of two meta-theories of Gestalt and System theory at the beginning of the last century have had their own effects on different fields of social sciences. These two fields, which deal with fundamental questions about systems, give really useful hints about what an organization, in this case a school, essentially is (Stephanie Harung, 2014). The radical ideas that Gestalt psychology provides include visual perception, and cognitive neuroscience such as those which are found in processing of information (Wageman, 2012).
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Pyschic Instructional Distance
Psychic instructional Distance could be defined as an abstract distance which a teacher may make as he or she goes under dramatic social, familial, personal situations which could have a negative impact on his or her way of instruction in a given classroom. He or she would make a distance from accepted series of ethical, instructional codes at school. In its most negative dimensions, pathological manners could be manifested toward pupils or other colleagues. Getting information on these sorts of behaviour through research or observations is the first way to recognise this distance.
It seems extremely difficult to make a teacher and a student psychic status stable both in classroom activities and familial life. Psychological changes are only sometimes visible when a teacher loses her temper or shows a remarkable pulse of excitement. The same is true for a pupil. The only factor which enforces a teacher to keep up the chin up and continue teaching is an invisible result of thoughts ranging from job loss to etchical issues. As psychological status of an teacher changes, his instructional approach may be palpitated as well. An invisible tread of behaviour starts forming in his psyche ending up in a decision. The numberless causes of this psychic changes can be remarked, listed and considered relationally with other factors such family, religion, teacher’ s own philosophical approach to life, and so on. Because pinpointing the changes and their causes in a chronical way is not any easy job or research topic, we need a foundational platform which could help teachers to see themselves and have counselling courses with a board of teachers who could help him or her find a way out. Seemingly recognizing personal traits, clinical therapies and psycho-analysis are some useful tools that could be used to help teachers figure out a way out. In harsh, dire situations, teachers suffer like others. It seems that, schooling systems have not paid enough attention to this matter. Simply speaking, teachers suffer as well and they need remedy in their dramatic situations. We need more humanism toward psychic behaviours in schools. It is one of the curricular responsibilities of schools to help teachers be integrated into psychologically healthy status of schools. This integration may be related to sorting out a psychic problem of teacher who is in dramatic situation. I would call this integration ” remedial one” which attempts to track psychological problems of both teachers and students and prevent pathological manners.
The most straightforward merit of this type of curricular remedy is of keeping teaching quality high and having a group of psychologically healthy teachers in a school. The message here is simple: help those teachers who are in dramatic situations so that students would not suffer from their teacher’s bad mood or misleading behaviour.
A critique on Behaviorism in instructional Design
In behaviorisic tradition, instruction is assumed to be a conditioned stimulus in order to get a respose from learners. The presupposition of learning is seen in relation with a stimulus. pavlov utilised a three-step experimenet to show how learning can take place. In each of these three steps there is a repeative stimulus which is called as neutral, unconditioned, and conditioned. In the first step, a bell ring is considered as neutral and dog doesn’t produce any response. In the second step, the bell ring is followed by a peice of meat which triggers the production of saliva which is labelled as unconitioned response. In the final step, the stimulus is seen as conditioned and the ring bell , without food offer, produces saliva in the dog or we can say ” the response”.
what a method of instruction ?!?!
First of all, human being is not a dog. Instuction and strategies of teaching has no proportion to and relation with a ring bell. instruction in a classroom or any field of learning among humans cannot be compared to a simple dichotomy of stimulus-response configurations. Instuctions could be descriptives, pictorial , they could start with an anecdote , a socratic method can be used for a diiferent goal. A movie can act as teaching material with instructional objectives. What if we see instructions of abstract forms or totally practical forms, for example , when a musician teaches a learner how to grab a guitar and play notes on it?
How we can see and find , let alone one to one, a match with the method provided by Pavlov. lets take ” instruction” in a classsroom as a stimulus , what object should we take for” meat” in the classroom? oh! crips! bon bon !Take another one, a painiting teacher describes the elelments and principles of expressionism or cubism in a given classroom, students actively think or sleep or take notes or do only listen to their teachers. do they provide response?
where is the meat by then?